There are three Models of EI which identify different components of EI
- Ability model
- Mixed model
- Trait model
- Mayer and Salovey introduced this concept as a challenge to the traditional notion of intelligence as a monolithic ability i.e. only focused on cognitive ability, and to the thinkers who held emotions as obstructive to cognitive activity. EI includes intra- and inter-personal intelligence, i.e. the ability to know oneself and others, in terms of abilities, and current emotional state.
- Perceiving emotions: seeing emotions in a particular way.
- Understanding emotions: accepting emotions as they are.
- Management of emotions: regulation of emotions (just like an accelerator)
- The utilization of emotions: using emotions to achieve the target (na me yha aya hu na mujhe yah kisi ne bheja h, mujhe to ma ganga ne bulaya h..)
Mixed model (as given by Daniel Goleman)
- Internal motivation
- Social awareness (Empathy)
- Social management/Relationship Management (Social skills/ social intelligence)
- Ability to understand the variety and intensity of one’s own emotions. People with self-awareness understand their emotions and don’t let their feelings rule them. They are also willing to take an honest look at themselves. Example leaving bodily pleasures by Buddha, Gandhi…
- Techniques to become self-aware:
- Introspection: Examination of one’s conscious thoughts and feelings.
- Emotional literacy: Knowing about a different kind of emotion.
- Meta-cognition: Introspection of our thinking process if our thinking process is rational and objective or not. Talking to trusted friends, Regular feedback at the workplace, Sensitivity training
Self-regulation/management: This involves:
- Self-control: managing one’s disruptive impulses.
- Adaptability: handling change with flexibility.
- Anybody can become angry, that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, and for the right purpose, and in the right way, that is not within everybody’s power, that is not easy.” —Aristotle
Techniques to regulate emotion:
- Engaging one’s senses: Listening to music, going to the gym, reverse-counting.
- Yoga and meditation: training the mind to connect with inner selves
- Laughing therapy
- Use of humour
- Feel energized, not angry: Use what others call “anger” to help feel energized to take productive action.
- Avoid people who invalidate you. While this is not always possible, at least try to spend less time with them, or try not to let them have psychological power over you.
Internal Motivation: It includes one’s drive to improve and achieve commitment to one’s goals, initiative, or readiness to act on opportunities, and optimism and resilience.
Self-motivation is made up of self-drive, commitment, initiative, optimism, passion, achievement orientation, and the ability to delay gratification.
Steps to stay motivated:
- Defining one’s goal
- Having a clear understanding of the ideas
- Eliminate distractions
- Strive for possibilities
- It includes:
- Service orientation: anticipating, recognizing, and meeting other people’s needs.
- Developing others: Understanding the needs of people to progress and cultivating their abilities.
- Understanding opportunities through diverse people.
Steps to develop empathy:
- Listening to others with patience instead of controlling, commanding, criticising, or judging them.
- Role-playing put you in their place and think from their perspective.
- Challenging prejudice and stereotypes.
- Meeting culturally diverse people.
Social skill or relationship management:
- It includes
- Communication skills: Modi’s speech after demonetization, Modi’s speech before announcing the lockdown.
- Understanding, acceptance, and Validating feelings of other people: Your behaviour of consolation after failing your close friend.
- Persuasion: convincing the government to fund the space missions by Abdul Kalam.
- Leadership: Modi ji
- Developing team capability:
- Conflict management: Gandhi ji managed conflict between pro changers (CR DAS) and no changes (Sardar Patel)
Steps to improve social skills or relationship management:
- Use emotion to make decisions
- Respect others
- Concerning other people
- Opposite to the ability model, this model considers the EI as Part of One’s Personality rather than ability. The trait model, published by Petrides and Furnham established EI as a collaboration of many emotion-related behavioural traits and self-perceived abilities.
|Trait||Behavior of High Scorers |
|Adaptability||flexible and willing to adapt to new conditions.|
|Assertiveness||forthright, frank, and willing to stand up for their rights.|
|Emotion perception (self and others)||clear about their own and other people’s feelings.|
|Emotion expression||capable of communicating their feelings to others.|
|Emotion management (others)||capable of influencing other people’s feelings.|
|Emotion regulation||capable of controlling their emotions.|
|Impulsiveness (low)||reflective and less likely to give in to their urges.|
|Relationships||capable of having fulfilling personal relationships.|
|Self-esteem||successful and self-confident.|
|Self-motivation||driven and unlikely to give up in the face of adversity.|
|Social awareness||accomplished networkers with excellent social skills.|
|Stress management||capable of withstanding pressure and regulating stress.|
|capable of taking someone else’s perspective.|
|Trait happiness||cheerful and satisfied with their lives.|
|Trait optimism||confident and likely to “look on the bright side” of life.|