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- In Natyashastra musical instruments have been divided into four main categories based on how sound is produced. These include Stringed, wind, percussion and solid instruments.
- Santoor a stringed instrument is popular in Kashmir.
- Kamaicha is a bowed lute played by Manganiars of west Rajasthan.
- Shehnai is a reed instrument and its use is known as Mangal Vidya. Ustad Bismillah Khan is credited for popularizing this instrument.
- Tabla is a set of two vertical Oordhwaka drums. The right side is called tabla and left is Bayan or Dagga. Prominent musicians are Ustad Alla Rakha Khan, Zakir Hussain etc.
- In Sun temple, Konark a large sculpture of a female Jhanj player, of 8 ft. is found.