Modern India Architecture

Portugese Architecture

  • Iberian architecture was brought over by the Portuguese.
  • They constructed trading terminals and warehouses that were ultimately transformed into fortified cities.
  • They also brought the idea of “Patio houses” and “Baroque style,” which symbolise the power of the Church.
  • They used clashing colours (contrasting colour).
  • Examples: Se Cathedral in Goa, Basilica of Bom Jesus (Holy Jesus), Goa.
image 367

Fig: Cathedral of Goa

French Architecture

  • The idea of urban city planning was introduced.
  • French architecture utilized local raw materials and considered the local climate.
  • They also popularised the idea of faceless architecture, which has plain facades with minimal adornment and design, similar to modern structures.
  • The architectural style included French shutter windows, carvings on archways, and thin street fronts, blending nicely with traditional Bengali homes’ courtyards and backyard gardens.
  • Also built coastal towns of  Yanam (Andhra Pradesh), Karaikal (Tamil Nadu), and Mahe (Kerala).
  • Examples include the Sacred Heart Church in Chandannagar and the Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Puducherry.
image 368

Fig: Sacred Heart Church in Chandannagar

British Architecture


  • The Indo-Gothic architectural style(fusion of Gothic, Persian and Indian architectural form)  also known as Victorian Style was introduced by the British.
  • Features: Use of large windows.
  • Large constructions
  • Pointed arches and walls
  • It was through them that the first introduction to elementary modern building construction through steel,iron and concrete were used and planning was introduced into India.
  • Examples: Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, Gateway of India in Mumbai, etc.
image 369

Fig: Gateway of India,Mumbai


  • Neo-Roman Style/Neo-Classical style was introduced.
  • The most significant architectural phenomenon that took place during the first half of this century in this country was building of Imperial Delhi.
  • Features: Circular building
  • During this stage, the idea of an inverted dome was adopted.
  • Example: President Estate
image 371

Fig: President Estate

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