In India, various forms of calendars came into picture based on the various eras to which it relates. They are:
- Vikram era started in 57 BC and is in force in India except the region of Bengal.
- This era as historians believe, is said to have been established by King Vikramaditya of Ujjain to commemorate his victory over the Saka rulers.
- It is a lunar calendar based on ancient Hindu calendar.
- The new year begins with the first day after the new moon, in the month of Chaitra which usually falls in the month of March–April in the Gregorian calendar.
- For most of India, Vikram era starts with Kartika as the first year.
- This calendar form was initiated in 78 AD. It was also known as the Saka era.
- Saka Calendar is both solar and lunar with lunar months and solar year and has the same number of months as the Vikram era has. However, the months commence in different periods here.
- Saka Calendar begins on 22nd March every year except in Gregorian leap years when it starts on 21st March.
- The number of days in a Saka year is 365.
- The Saka calendar used as the official civil calendar in the country is the National Calendar of India.