Important Dynasties of Sangam Age

Sangam age starts from around 3 Century BC to 300 AD. The information about this period is drawn from Sangam literature.

Cheras of Sangam Age

  • Controlled central and northern parts of Kerala and Kongu region of Tamil Nadu.
  • Vanji (modern Karur) was their capital.
  • First Ruler: Udiyangeral
  • They had ports on the west coast named Muziris and Tondi.
  • Their greatest king was Senguttuvan who was also known as the Red or Good Chera.
  • They were known for their spices specially pepper.

Cholas of Sangam Age

  • Chola Kingdom was between Pennar and Velar rivers (Central and Northern Parts of Tamil Nadu).
  • Its chief centre was Uraiyur which was famous for cotton trade.
  • Their firm history begins with the coming of ruler Karikala in the 2nd century AD.
  • Karikala founded Puhar also known as Kaveripattinam, which served as Chola’s capital.
  • Puhar was a port city with a large dockyard. It also yields evidence of roman trade being conducted.


  • They were mentioned in the accounts of Megasthenes who says that their kingdom was celebrated for pearls.
  • It had matrilineal influence in their social setup.
  • Their capital was at Madurai.
  • Sangams were held under patronage of Pandyas in Madurai.
  • An important port of Pandyas was Korkai. It was famous for pearl fishery and Chank diving.
  • Nedunchezhiyan is the most famous king of Pandyas.
  • Important temples include Meenakshi temple, Madurai and Nellaiappar temple on the banks of Tamirabarani in Tirunelveli.
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