Sangam age starts from around 3 Century BC to 300 AD. The information about this period is drawn from Sangam literature.
Cheras of Sangam Age
- Controlled central and northern parts of Kerala and Kongu region of Tamil Nadu.
- Vanji (modern Karur) was their capital.
- First Ruler: Udiyangeral
- They had ports on the west coast named Muziris and Tondi.
- Their greatest king was Senguttuvan who was also known as the Red or Good Chera.
- They were known for their spices specially pepper.
Cholas of Sangam Age
- Chola Kingdom was between Pennar and Velar rivers (Central and Northern Parts of Tamil Nadu).
- Its chief centre was Uraiyur which was famous for cotton trade.
- Their firm history begins with the coming of ruler Karikala in the 2nd century AD.
- Karikala founded Puhar also known as Kaveripattinam, which served as Chola’s capital.
- Puhar was a port city with a large dockyard. It also yields evidence of roman trade being conducted.
- They were mentioned in the accounts of Megasthenes who says that their kingdom was celebrated for pearls.
- It had matrilineal influence in their social setup.
- Their capital was at Madurai.
- Sangams were held under patronage of Pandyas in Madurai.
- An important port of Pandyas was Korkai. It was famous for pearl fishery and Chank diving.
- Nedunchezhiyan is the most famous king of Pandyas.
- Important temples include Meenakshi temple, Madurai and Nellaiappar temple on the banks of Tamirabarani in Tirunelveli.