Impact of Jainism
- Language: Jainism helped in the development of many local languages. Vardhaman Mahavir himself spoke in the Ardha Magadhi language. Saursani was also use. Most of the canonical text of Jainism was written in the Prakrit languages.
- Polity: Kings who followed the principles of Jainism took the path of non-violence and tolerance (e.g., Chandragupta Mauryan and Mahameghavahana Aira Kharvela).
- Traders community: Jainism foster the brotherhood, non-violence and empathy which helped in the development of guild system and attracted the trading community.
- It inculcated the following in the Indian society:
- Ethical idealism; Strengthening of ethical life and moral virtues,
- Austerity, both external (eg: begging, fasting, lack of fetishism) internal (eg: humility, service to humanity, acquisition of knowledge, meditation, penances) to shut influx of evil.
- Preaches kindness not only to human society but to other life forms too which gave form to pure vegetarianism.
- Intoxication of any kind is strictly prohibited in Jainism.
- Construction of dharamshalas (rest houses, inn) for public service.
Impact of Buddhism
- In the sphere of religion, it was against ritualism, superstitions and sacrifices. Thereby supported rational way of living.
- It (Mahayana) popularized idol worship.
- It helped in the upliftment of women by making religion and education accessible to them.
- In social life Buddhism contributed egalitarianism. It raised voice against caste discrimination and social oppression.
- They universalized it and opened schools for even Shudras as well as women.
- Promotion of democracy and democratic values (sangha system).