Important Personalities Associated With National Movement

Anand Mohan Bose

  • Founder member of the Indian Association of Calcutta (1876), Indian National Conference (1883) and Indian National Congress (1885).
  • Presided over the Madras Session of INC (1898).

Aruna Asaf Ali

  • Nicknamed Aruna Ganguli, she married Asaf Ali, India’s first Ambassador to the USA.
  • She was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930, 1932) and for participating in Individual Satyagraha (1940).
  • In 1942, she hoisted the Indian National Congress Flag tricolour at Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Grounds.
  • Elected as the first Mayor of Delhi, in 1958.
  • Awarded International Lenin Prize in 1964.
  • Newspapers— Link and Patriot.

Badruddin Tyabji

  • He was the first Barrister in Bombay.
  • Appointed to Bombay Bench in 1895 and 1902 and became the second Indian Chief Justice.
  • He advocated Tilak’s case on seditious writings in the latter’s journal, Kesari.
  • Founder member of Bombay Legislative Council (1882) and INC (1885).
  • Presided over the third INC Session in Madras.
  • Stressed upon modernization of Muslims and served as President of Bombay-based Anjuman-i-Islam.

C R Das

  • A lawyer by profession, he defended Aurobindo in the Alipore Bomb Conspiracy case.
  • He was a member of the Congress Enquiry Committee set up to investigate Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • He founded the All-India Swaraj Party in 1923.
  • He was elected as the first Mayor of the Calcutta Co-operation in 1924.
  • Prepared Das Formula for Hindu-Muslim Co-operation.
  • He was nicknamed Deshbandhu Chittaranjan.
  • Wrote: Malancha (poems), Mala, Antaryami, Kishore-Kishoree and Sagar-Sangit.
  • Newspapers: Narayana (Bengali monthly) & Forward.

Dadabhai Naoroji

  • First to demand ‘Swaraj” in Calcutta Session of INC, 1906.
  • Title — “Indian Gladstone,” “Grand Old Man of India.’
  • First Indian to be selected to the “House of Commons” on Liberal Party ticket.
  • He highlighted the draining of wealth from India by the British and its effect in his book “Poverty and un-British Rule in India “(1901).

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

  • Participated in Swadeshi Movement (established Bihari Students, Conference), Champaran Satyagraha, NCM, CDM and Quit India Movement.
  • Founded the National College at Patna.
  • Minister in charge of Food and Agriculture in the Interim Government (1946).
  • President of the Constituent Assembly.
  • First President of the Indian Republic.
  • Honoured with ‘Bharat Ratna’ in 1962.
  • Newspaper — Desh (Hindi weekly).

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

  • Gandhiji regarded him as his political guru.
  • President of Banaras Session of INC, 1905, which supported the Swadeshi Movement.
  • Founded Servants of Indian Society in 1905, to train people who would work as national missionaries.

Madan Mohan Malviya

  • A moderate leader and lawyer by profession, he served the provincial and central legislature for many terms.
  • Through his efforts, a memorial was built at the Jallianwala Bagh site.
  • Founded the Nationalist Party in 1926.
  • Appointed Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University.
  • Editor of Hindustan, Abhyudaya & Indian Union papers

Motilal Nehru

  • A lawyer by profession, Motilal became an active supporter of the Home Rule Movement in 1916 and started the journal ‘The Independent’.
  • He headed the Congress Commission looking into the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • He gave up his practice during NCM and was arrested following the visit of Prince Wales.
  • He founded the Swaraj Party along with CR Das.
  • He renamed Anand Bhawan Swaraj Bhawan and gifted it to Congress.

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

  • Inspired by the ideas of Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
  • In 1906, he signed a memorandum against separate electorates for Muslims.
  • Joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913 and played a key role in signing or Lucknow Pact.
  • In 1917, joined the Home Rule Movement of Annie Besant.
  • His differences with Congress began after the entry of Gandhiji in Congress. He opposed the NCM of Gandhiji.
  • In 1929, he proposed his Fourteen Point Demands.
  • Lahore Session of Muslim League (1940) passed Pakistan Resolution demanding a separate state for Muslims. Jinnah stuck to League’s demand in all negotiations with Britain. 

Rabindranath Tagore

  • He was a poet, philosopher, educationist, internationalist and patriot.
  • He has his elder brother, Satyendra Nath Tagore, the first Indian to become an ICS.
  • His first poem was published in the ‘Amrit Bazar Patrika’ and then he wrote ‘Banaphul’ (story and ‘Bhanusinher Padavali’ (series of lyrics).
  • Founded Shantiniketan in, 1901.
  • Wrote ‘Gitanjali’, for which Nobel Prize was awarded to him in 1913.
  • Inaugurated Raksha Bandhan festival to oppose the Partition of Bengal (1905).
  • Founded Vishwa Bharati University.
  • In 1915, British Crown granted him a ‘knighthood’ which he renounced after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • His compositions were chosen as the National Anthem of two nations:
    • India — Jana Gana Mana
    • Bangladesh — Amar Shonar Bangla

Ras Behari Bose

  • A revolutionary from Bengal, Bose organized several clandestine activities in UP, Delhi and Punjab at an early age.
  • Associated with Hardinge Bomb Case & Lahore Conspiracy Case after which he escaped to Japan.
  • Founded the India Independence League and organized its first session in Bangkok in 1942.
  • Served as President of the Council of Action for the formation of INA, and later handed it over to Subash Chandra Bose.
  • Bose died in Tokyo on January 21, 1945.

Sachindra Nath Sanyal

  • An associate of Ras Behari Bose, Sanyal organized a revolt by soldiers of the 7th Rajput Regiment in United Provinces.
  • Founder member of Hindustan Republican Association. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in Kakori Conspiracy Case in 1925.
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