- To compensate for the loss of forest area and to maintain sustainability, the Government of India came up with a well-defined Act, known as CAMPA (Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority).
- Establishes National Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of India and a State Compensatory Afforestation Fund under the Public Account of each state.
- These Funds will receive payments for (i) compensatory afforestation, (ii) net present value of forest (NPV), and (iii) other project-specific payments.
- The National Fund will receive 10% of these funds, and the State Funds will receive the remaining 90%.
- According to the Act’s provision, a company diverting forest land must provide alternative land to take up compensatory afforestation.
- For afforestation, the company should pay to plant new trees in the alternative land provided to the state.
Botanical & Zoological Survey of India
Botanical Survey of India
- An institution set up by the GOI in 1890.
- Objective: Identifying the plant resources of this country.
Zoological Survey of India
- Established in 1916.
- Objective of ZSI: Explore and research the fauna.
- The history of ZSI goes back to Asiatic Society of Bengal founded by Sir William Jones in 1784 which is the mother of institutions like Indian Museum, ZSI and Geological Survey of India.
- Both are under the MOEFCC.
- Headquarters of both is in Kolkata.