Elucidate the relationship between globalization and new technology in a world of scarce resources, with special reference to India.

Sample Answer


Globalization and technology are reshaping India’s geography by transforming flows of resources, goods and people. While enabling access to resources and markets worldwide, these forces also disrupt local ecologies, economies and communities dependent on them in the face of scarcity. An understanding of this relationship is vital to navigate India’s development sustainably.


Changing patterns of resource use: Imports and exports linked to global supply chains as well as technology-aided extraction have intensified use of land, water and minerals, causing overuse and pollution. Examples are groundwater depletion for export crops, pollution from mining of rare minerals used in tech, land degradation from SEZs. Despite scarcity, inefficient resource use continues due to lack of safeguards.  

Uneven spread of benefits: Global cities and tech hubs attract high-skilled jobs, investments in infrastructure and amenities through global networks. However, this concentrates incomes, wealth and access in already developed regions, excluding others from new economic possibilities. This uneven geography exacerbates inequity and marginalization. 

Threats to local livelihoods and culture: Globalized production, trade in commodities and adoption of technologies often displace traditional occupations and lifestyles by degrading the resources they rely on or changing demand for certain skills. This disrupts local economies, cultural diversity and indigenous knowledge systems.  

Examples: Peri-urban landscapes in India are under stress from industrialization for export goods and tech parks. Coastal aquifers are depleted to produce rice, cotton and shrimp for global markets. Adivasi lands are taken for mining rare earths used in tech. Handloom livelihoods suffer from global brands and ecommerce.


Globalization and technology provide new opportunities but also disrupt India’s local geographies by straining natural resources, benefitting some regions over others and undermining traditional livelihoods. Balancing global flows with sustainability, equity and community requires policy interventions to regulate resource use, redistribute gains of globalization, and support localized economies. A globally-engaged but locally-rooted development model is key to India’s prosperity.

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